Independent Operating Systems Explained

An Operating System is described as software made up of data and programs that is a common feature on most computers and completes a variety of functions such as managing computer hardware resources as well as providing common services to assist with the execution of the operations of various application software (computer software which is designed for the express purpose of helping the user to perform single or multiple related tasks, such as media players, office suites and accounting software). For hardware functions (such as memory allocation and input and output), the operating system acts as a kind of ‘middle man’ between the computer programs and the application software.

Operating structures can be considered quite probably the most important examples of system software that is present in a computer system since without an operating system, it would be impossible for a user to run an application program on their computer (that is of course unless the application is ‘self-booting’ and therefore would not require the assistance of an operating system). It is for this reason that operating systems are found on almost every device that contains any form of computer, ranging from top of the range supercomputers and web servers everyday technological devices, such as video game consoles and even mobile phones.

Components of operating structures include the Kernel (the most important of all components of an operating application) which acts as a bridge between application software and the actual data processing that is conducted at hardware level. Responsibilities of this component include managing the resources of the system (the managing of the communication between the hardware and the software components). Interrupts (asynchronous signals which indicate the need for attention or indicating a synchronous event in a piece of software that needs a change in execution) are another essential part of operating applications, as is multitasking (the running of multiple independent computer programs on the same computer).

It is often the case that application software is written to be used on only one single operating system (and sometime even for one specific piece of hardware) and as a result it has become possible in recent years for computers to support a number of different independent operating structures. The cost in supporting a number of diverse operating applications can be avoided by the user instead writing applications against software platforms (a crucial element in the development of software) such as Java.

Operating System – Scheduling and Its Categories

Scheduler is the most critical system of an Operating System. In order to optimize the utilization of processors, several scheduling algorithms are used. When the system has various processes to execute, it must have a capability to make decisions about which process to run at the given time slot. This strategy should keep in view the concepts of maximizing throughput, minimizing latency and also avoiding the process starvation etc. Many scheduling algorithms are widely used nowadays.

Scheduling is the core concept in OS design. In multiprogramming, the processes that are loaded in the main memory strive for the resources i.e. processor time. During the execution of one process, other processes wait for any event to occur or for an I/O operation to be performed. Scheduling regulates the execution of these processes i.e. which process will run and which process will wait. The objectives that must be fulfilled by the scheduling algorithm include effective utilization of the processor time, throughput and turnaround, response time and fairness. OS can be categorically divided into three different types of scheduling i.e. long term scheduling, short term scheduling and medium term scheduling.

Latest multi user systems can run a hundreds of applications concurrently, yet these systems provide some isolation between users. However, absence of isolation may lead some users towards poor performance or intentional or unintentional DoS (Denial of Service). In recent computational clusters, these problems are easily prevented by using the concept of jobs and job schedulers. This postpones the job until resources are available and schedule it after the availability of all the possible resources.

Categories:

An operating system may be the best known software that we run on our personal computers, it’s what takes proper care of virtually everything on the computer, while nearly all computer systems we have seen are actually one ‘type’ of operating-system carrying out exactly the same functions. OS could be branched into a number of different types too. Inside the broad group, you will find many types of OS which are mainly categorized based on the kinds of computer systems they control and also the kind of programs they support.

Depending upon the nature of domain, OS can be divided into some of the following types.

1. Real Time OS:

A Real Time Operating System (Usually known as RTOS) is specifically designed for serving the real time application requests. The major characteristic of a real time OS is its consistency level that it takes to accept and finish any task of the associated applications.

2. Embedded OS:

The Embedded systems are resource limited systems and commonly response time is an extremely significant requirement. As the most important parts of real-time embedded OS, scheduling algorithms are presented to improve the real-time of the embedded systems. The most existing real-time scheduling algorithms are based on the processes with little consideration about the resources in the systems.

3. Network OS:

The network operating system (NOS) is the software that is installed on a server and allows the server to manage data, groups, users, applications, security, and many other networking tasks. The network OS is designed to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), private network or to other networks.

4. Mobile OS:

A mobile operating system (mobile OS) is designed to control a smartphone, tablet, PDA, or other mobile device. Modern mobile OS combine the features of a personal computer OS with touch screen, cellular, Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS mobile navigation, camera, video camera speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, Near field communication and personal digital assistant (PDA), and many other features.
In 2006, Windows Phone, Android, Bada and iOS were not yet developed and just 64 million smartphones were then sold. Today, nearly 10 times as many smartphones are already sold and the best mobile OS has been promoted as “smartphones” by the market share which includes BlackBerry, Android, Symbian, Apple, iOS, Meego, Bada, and Windows Phone.

5. Distributed OS:

A distributed operating system is the logical aggregation of OS software over a collection of independent networked, connected, communicating, and physically distinct computational nodes. The management components collection and micro-kernel operates together. They provide a support for the system’s aim of integrating numerous resources and processing functionality into an effective and established system.

In this article, a review study of different operating system was performed. The ease of techniques that are used supports the statement that the scheduling algorithms provide user friendly, highly flexible and most optimal solution to any ordinary problem related to job sequencing. This work can be extended by considering, reviewing and evaluating the dynamic scheduling algorithms and job sequencing problems in the particular domain.

OS 101: Suggestions for Choosing an Operating System

An operating system (abbreviated OS) is essentially the path through which a computer accesses files, games, the Internet, and all vital stored information. The OS is the most important program on a computer because it runs all of the other programs. The major operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Unix. The operating system is essential to the computer, and so extreme care should be taken when choosing an operating system.

Consider Its Use

Consider what operating system will be used for. If the OS is for a business, an operating system that can handle important business data should be selected. If the OS is for a college student, one might consider an OS that is optimal for gaming, yet still has a nice word processor. Finally, if the operating system were for a new computer user, then a user-friendly, simple OS would be best. Knowing this, one must also consider what software is available for the operating system. Some software is only available on certain computers. This often leaves Macintosh OS X, Linux, and Unix in the dark because most of the computer market runs on Microsoft operating systems. Most computers come standard with a certain operating system (Apple computers have Mac OS X and most PCs have Windows XP). Therefore, it is sometimes important to consider the OS even when selecting a computer.

Security

Security is the biggest priority for many computer users, especially businesses. Some OS have stronger security than others. Macintosh has been called “the iron man of operating systems” because of its ability to keep hackers out, while Windows has been criticized for being easy to hack. Do not let security completely deter you, however. Most operating systems can be “hardened” and with constant security updates, made safer from hackers.

Pros and Cons of The Big Four

Every operating system has its positive and negative elements. There is no perfect operating system. Keeping this in mind, consider the most common operating systems (Mac OS X, Windows, Linux, and Unix). Mac OS X is great for keeping out hackers and for graphic design. However some problems are the fact that certain software is not available for Macs. If the OS is for a college student who would rather play Half-Life 2 than study, then Mac OS X is not the best choice. Windows is very good for compatibility, since most consumers use Windows. Windows also comes with applications like Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and Internet Explorer. Unfortunately, Windows is weak against viruses and can get bogged down easily. Unix is good for networks, especially if for businesses. Unix has also been around for almost 30 years, so it is quite dependable. One drawback of Unix is the cost, which can sometimes be a bit expensive. Unix is also complicated, which can confuse beginners. The final OS, Linux, is free and completely customizable. However, one major drawback is the extreme scarcity of applications for Linux. Microsoft and other software developers are often very reluctant to release their products for Linux.

Conclusion

Whatever operating system one chooses, it needs to be the system that will best fit the needs of the consumer. All operating systems have good and bad elements. Understanding how each system works, and the system’s pros and cons is a must for anyone deciding on a computer and OS. An OS selection based on research and understanding will certainly yield the highest satisfaction.